Business unlike traditional business programmes, this programme (BBM) offers a wide range of unique choices of specialized options such as accounting, marketing, banking and finance, insurance and risk management, co-operative management, human resources management and management sciences.
At the end of the training, the graduates will be expected to:
- Effectively manage resources at their disposal according to contemporary economic, business management and technological trends;
- Carry out research in business and management trends with a view to finding solutions to contemporary problems affecting development at various scales;
- Appreciate the complex relationship between the national economy and global economic trends; and
- Have acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes for pursuing further studies in Business and Management.
Any applicant who meets the minimum entry requirements for admission into the University may be granted admission, the requirements are :
- An A’ Level Certificate (a Degree, HND or PGD) with 2:2, Lower credit, or Pass respectively and above.
- Transcript of the A’Level result.
- Copy of International Passport data page.
- A copy of CV.
To register for any of the available courses take the following steps
- Click on courses on the menu bar or apply now button to pick a course
- After selecting the course, click apply now to add to cart
- View the cart to fill the application form
- Submit the form to go to the payment page
- Complete the payment form and select method of payment and submit.
- You will receive an email letting you know of your registration and your application status
- You will be contacted by one of our admission team member to guide you on the admission.
- After making the payment of application fee admission letter will be sent to your email with fee structure.
- You will need to make payment of at least 70% of the tuition and acceptance fee for you to be granted access to the course applied for.
- After making the payment an email will be sent to your email with access link to your registered course.
- You study online and can come to school every semester for exams.
Tuition per Session
Tuition Fee = ₦480,000
Application = ₦10,ooo
Acceptance = ₦ 20,000
Course kit =₦20,000
Administrative Charges = ₦60,000
Project supervision = ₦20,000
Convocation = ₦40,000
Total = ₦650,000
We have heard – and used – the word strategy countless times. Indeed, we have developed and
implemented strategies since the moment we were born. Overtime, anybody is capable to analyze and react
to others‘ strategic moves. We do experience strategy every day.
Certainly, a person can be an accomplished strategist even without to know what strategy is or
means, simply because strategy is not an exact science nor a defined tool or skill for itself, but a very
abstract attribute of the intricate human cognition that let us to position ourselves in life according to our
personal goals. As such, strategy is driven by our individual and characteristic ―way to do‖ (or being) or
in other words, it is driven by our personality and what determines it.
However, strategy is not an exclusive attribute of the human condition. In nature, strategy regards
the traits (characteristics) of individuals and populations to deal with the primordial objective of surviving.
From this perspective, strategies to survive do emerge and evolve endlessly.
We can illustrate such dynamics through the lenses of the natural selection theory for example.
When the environment and the resources it provides changes, organisms must quickly adjust to new
conditions keeping at least one basic objective that is to ensure the maximum possible viability of offspring.
Individuals and the populations they form will face this challenge through a strategic trade off between
quantity and quality of progeny. This is known in ecology as the r/k selection theory. According to the
prevailing characteristics of the environment, organisms will exhibit an ―r‖ or ―k‖ strategy. The r-strategy
is optimal for unstable (rapidly changing) environments, and is based on quick reproduction cycles.
Organisms that are r-strategists will naturally have small bodies, short generational time, and a large number
of offspring capable to disperse over large geographic areas (e.g. rats, insects, and bacteria). On the contrary,
in stable (thus predictable) environments, K-strategists will tend to specialize on effective competition for
resources. Since resources in ecosystems are limited, k-populations will keep they number near constant
and close to what is their maximum carrying capacity. Hence, this individuals or populations will have
larger long life expectancy and body size, and produce fewer offspring that in turn require greater parental
care until maturity. Obviously, humans populations presents a Kstrategy as do other large mammals
(including whales), and some species of threes. However, populations rarely exhibit just one strategy but
rather a combination of both. This fact, probes the existence of a third strategy in which individuals and
populations do prepare themselves to survive as environments evolve.
From the perspective of theory and practice, strategy is directly associated with the
management of the business or corporate organizations. Strategic management is a relatively
recent discipline without a unified theory supporting its increasing practice. Indeed, strategic
management is as difficult to define as strategy is. According to French (2009), strategy
management was first proposed in early 80s at the Pittsburgh Conference, although organized with
the specific purpose of defining a new paradigm for business policy. The concept of business policy
was then rephrased as
―strategic management‖ and defined as:
“…A process that deals with the entrepreneurial work of the
organisation, with organisational renewal and growth, and more
particularly, with developing and utilising strategy, which is a guide to
the organisation’s operations.”
This rather abstract definition states that as a discipline, strategic management implies
both the development and implementation of strategies. Since the word strategy is often employed
as a synonymous of plan, it should not be a surprise to know that strategic management is
commonly used as a homologous of strategic planning, and to some extent of strategic thinking.
However, as French indicates, strategic planning is a rather newer form of what is already known as
Planning‖ or ―OP‖ that focuses on budgetary plans for operations in the long-term. Strategic
thinking on the other hand, focuses on the process of developing (forming) strategies, while being
less formal than strategic planning and strategic management.
relevant issues related to each of the stages in the process based on relevant literature on
contemporary organizational management.
definition) present the analyst with a special set of problems. The procedure presented in this
chapter is an operational one suitable for use in ex-ante appraisal or on-going and ex-post
evaluation missions. Although it is more descriptive and empirical than methods proposed by
researchers, it aims to provide to analysts and decisionmakers with a clear and detailed assessment of
the project’s financial and economic benefits and limits.
This analysis aims to assess whether the scarce resources devoted to the project are soundly utilized. It
analyses costs in monetary terms, while benefits are expressed in descriptive terms (quantified
material results, qualitative results).
The valuation of benefits of projects is often difficult, because:
◆ available resources do not permit the surveys and studies needed to value benefits (e.g., road
estimate the contribution of the project to the general well-being of the population. In
order to do this, the analyst can adopt different approaches, according to the main
constraints and objectives considered.
which they are implemented. A project’s impact on the economy can be
analysed by assessing the effects(1) (Chapter 5). On the other hand, the
impact of the economic environment (e.g., prices and availability of goods and
services, seasonality, national policies and regulations, organisation of the
sector, sub-sector or international market, regional agreements and regulations)
on the project, must also be analysed to assess the project’s sustainability,
which is defined as the ability of the project to generate an acceptable level of
benefits over a period of sufficient length, once the financial and technical
assistance of the donors is ended(2). This analysis of project viability enables the
project analyst to measure the impact of constraints resulting from:
◆ the international economy into which the national economy is integrated
and in relation to which the growth of national income is, in the final
◆ the operation of local markets (e.g., market imperfections) and national
policies (e.g., incentives to produce, protectionist measures, exchange
The word Capital refers to be the total investment of a company of firm in money, tangible and
intangible assets. Whereas budgeting defined by the “Rowland and William” it may be said to
be the art of building budgets. Budgets are a blue print of a plan and action expressed in
quantities and manners.
The examples of capital expenditure:
1. Purchase of fixed assets such as land and building, plant and machinery, good will, etc.
2. The expenditure relating to addition, expansion, improvement and alteration to the fixed
3. The replacement of fixed assets.
4. Research and development project.
According to the definition of Charles T. Hrongreen, “capital budgeting is a long-term planning
for making and financing proposed capital out lays.
According to the definition of G.C. Philippatos, “capital budgeting is concerned with the
allocation of the firms source financial resources among the available opportunities. The
consideration of investment opportunities involves the comparison of the expected future
streams of earnings from a project with the immediate and subsequent streams of earning from
a project, with the immediate and subsequent streams of expenditure”.
According to the definition of Richard and Green law, “capital budgeting is acquiring inputs
with long-term return”.
According to the definition of Lyrich, “capital budgeting consists in planning development of
available capital for the purpose of maximizing the long-term profitability of the concern”.
Capital is the major part of all kinds of business activities, which are decided by the size, and
nature of the business concern. Capital may be raised with the help of various sources. If the
company maintains proper and adequate level of capital, it will earn high profit and they can
provide more dividends to its shareholders.
Meaning of Capital Structure
Capital structure refers to the kinds of securities and the proportionate amounts that make up
capitalization. It is the mix of different sources of long-term sources such as equity shares,
preference shares, debentures, long-term loans and retained earnings.
The term capital structure refers to the relationship between the various long-term source
financing such as equity capital, preference share capital and debt capital. Deciding the suitable
capital structure is the important decision of the financial management because it is closely
related to the value of the firm.
Capital structure is the permanent financing of the company represented primarily by long-
term debt and equity.
Definition of Capital Structure
The following definitions clearly initiate, the meaning and objective of the capital structures.
According to the definition of Gerestenbeg, “Capital Structure of a company refers to the
composition or make up of its capitalization and it includes all long-term capital resources”.
According to the definition of James C. Van Horne, “The mix of a firm’s permanent long-
term financing represented by debt, preferred stock, and common stock equity”.
According to the definition of Presana Chandra, “The composition of a firm’s financing
consists of equity, preference, and debt”.
Financial planning and decision play a major role in the field of financial management which consists of
the major area of financial management such as, capitalization, financial structure, capital structure,
leverage and financial forecasting.
Financial planning includes the following important parts:
● Estimating the amount of capital to be raised.
● Determining the form and proportionate amount of securities.
● Formulating policies to manage the financial plan.
MEANING OF CAPITAL
The term capital refers to the total investment of the company in terms of money, and assets. It is also called
as total wealth of the company. When the company is going to invest large amount of finance into the
business, it is called as capital. Capital is the initial and integral part of new and existing business concern.
The capital requirements of the business concern may be classified into two categories: (a) Fixed capital
(b) Working capital.
Fixed capital is the capital, which is needed for meeting the permanent or long-term purpose of the business
concern. Fixed capital is required mainly for the purpose of meeting capital expenditure of the business
concern and it is used over a long period. It is the amount invested in various fixed or permanent assets,
which are necessary for a business concern.
Definition of Fixed Capital
According to the definition of Hoagland, “Fixed capital is comparatively easily defined to include land,
building, machinery and other assets having a relatively permanent existence”.