M.A International Trade
M.A International Trade the student is introduced to the language and terminology of international trade and major international political and economic policies that affect modern international businesses. Special attention is given to fundamental concepts of international finance, accounting, law, management, and marketing.
At the end of the module, the student should be able to :
- Identify benefits and limitations of how global markets work
- Use relevant economic principles to articulate insights into policy issues of relevance to business management worldwide
Any applicant who meets the minimum entry requirements for admission into the University may be granted admission, the requirements are :
- An A’ Level Certificate (a Degree, HND or PGD) with 2:2, Lower credit, or Pass respectively and above.
- Transcript of the A’Level result.
- Copy of International Passport data page.
- A copy of CV.
To register for any of the available courses take the following steps
- Click on courses on the menu bar or apply now button to pick a course
- After selecting the course, click apply now to add to cart
- View the cart to fill the application form
- Submit the form to go to the payment page
- Complete the payment form and select method of payment and submit.
- You will receive an email letting you know of your registration and your application status
- You will be contacted by one of our admission team member to guide you on the admission.
- After making the payment of application fee admission letter will be sent to your email with fee structure.
- You will need to make payment of at least 70% of the tuition and acceptance fee for you to be granted access to the course applied for.
- After making the payment an email will be sent to your email with access link to your registered course.
- You study online and can come to school every semester for exams.
Tuition per Session
Tuition Fee = ₦480,000
Application = ₦10,ooo
Acceptance = ₦ 20,000
Course kit =₦20,000
Administrative Charges = ₦60,000
Project supervision = ₦20,000
Convocation = ₦40,000
Total = ₦650,000
The variance of both profitability and growth decreases with firm size. The second key source
of divergence is that smaller enterprises have a lower probability of survival than larger enterprises. In a normally functioning financial market, some of these differences should be reflected in higher interest rates or less favourable terms of debt financing.
Analysis suggests that a small group of high-growth small and medium-sized enterprises (HGSMEs) make important contributions to job creation and productivity growth. In particular, it has been shown that both job creation and job destruction tend to be concentrated: a significant part of gross job creation is in a comparatively small number of very rapidly expanding firms and a large part of gross job destruction is in a relatively small number of rapidly contracting or exiting firms. However, the role of, and factors influencing, growing firms is not fully understood. A more complete understanding of high-growth firms may lead to adjustments in government policies to enhance their unique contributions to economic growth.
The term “SME” — small and medium-sized enterprises — covers a variety of definitions and measures. In OECD Member countries, employment is the most widely used criterion for determining firm size. SMEs are usually defined as firms with fewer than 500 employees, although a number of countries — including those in the European Union — use a lower cut-off point of 250.
Th e key components of logistics have been an important feature of industrial and economic life for countless years, but it is only in the relatively recent past that logistics has been recognized as a major function in its own right. Th e main reason for this has probably been the nature of logistics itself. It is a function made up of many sub-functions and many sub-systems, each of which has been, and may still be, treated as a distinct management operation.
Both the academic and the business world now accept that there is a need to adopt a more holistic view of these diff erent operations in order to take into account how they interrelate and interact with one another.
Th e appreciation of the scope and importance of logistics and the supply chain has led to a more scientifi c approach being adopted towards the subject. Th is approach has been aimed at the overall concept of the logistics function as a whole and also at the individual sub-systems. Much of this approach has addressed the need for, and means of, planning logistics and the supply chain, but has also considered some of the major operational issues.
Th e changing nature of logistics and the supply chain, particularly the move by many companies towards global operations, has had an obvious impact on the relative importance of the diff erent modes of transport. In a global context, more products are moved far greater distances because of the concentration of production facilities in low-cost manufacturing locations and because companies have developed conc epts such as focus factories, some with a single global manufacturing point for certain products. Long-distance modes of transport have thus become much more important to the development of effi cient logistics operations that have a global perspective. Th us, the need to understand the relative merits of, say, sea freight as against air freight is crucial although, for many localized fi nal delivery operations, it is still road freight transport that off ers the only real option. All of these developments serve to emphasize the need to appreciate the many diff erent facets of transport modal choice for international logistics.
Recent advances in information technology have focused attention on the importance of good information systems to support logistics and distribution activities. Th is requirement for information has always existed, but the computer has enabled the development of more sophisticated means of data storage, processing and presentation.
Information can be seen as the ‘lifeblood’ of a logistics and distribution system. Without the smooth fl ow and transfer of information, it is impossible for a distribution system to function adequately and eff ectively. To this end, it is important that an enterprise develops an appropriate strategy for its information require ments. Th is plan will need to take account of a number of diff erent objectives, from strategic planning through to operational control.
The taxation of business profits or income originates essentially from the early part of the 20th century. As state revenue needs became increasingly significant with the growth of military and welfare spending, most industrial capitalist countries moved from reliance on a multiplicity of specific duties, in particular high customs tariffs, to general, direct taxes on income. The acceptance of direct taxes rests on their application, as far as possible equally, to income or revenues from all sources, including business profits. Since many businesses operated on global markets, this raised the question of the jurisdictional scope of taxation.
The substance of state sovereignty is jurisdiction: the scope within which the effective and acceptable power of a state can be exercised. The modern state is defined in terms of territory: it consists of public authorities governing a defined territorial space. Thus, in modern international law, sovereignty is defined territorially, as `the right to exercise (in regard to a portion of the globe) to the exclusion of any other state the functions of a state¶(Island of Palmas, Netherlands v. U.S.A., 1928, p.92). However, such exclusive territorial state rights are essentially institutional and formal. Since economic activities and social relations are international or global, the reality of state power is not unlimited exclusive sovereignty, but interrelated and overlapping jurisdictions.
The first three chapters of this book focussed on the way that the international tax system developed as a result of multiple, related policy initiatives by different national states, as well as international negotiation and compromise between states. It is crucial to recognise, however, that an important part was also played by initiatives taken by taxpayers themselves, in particular the major international corporations and their advisors.