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BS.c Agricultural science

Course Overview

The B.Sc. in Agriculture is a broad spectrum degree that would complement in terms of manpower requirements, other specialized degree programmes offered at the University, particularly in view of the fact that extension service, public agricultural institutions and the private sector often require technical personnel that can assist in the development of a variety of enterprises both in animal and crop production.

Course Objectives

 Objectives
The programme is intended to train high level manpower with practical and conceptual skills to be deployed to increase crop and animal production through research, extension education, training, marketing and self-employment.
At the end of the programme, the graduate should be able to:
i) Perceive the importance of agriculture and particularly the role of crops and animals in providing food, fibre-clothing
ii) Effect proper methods of raising crops and animals either directly on his/her own farm, or indirectly through extension;
iii) Carry out basic and applied research geared towards enhancement of crop and animal production;
iv) Integrate practices of crop and animal production with other farming enterprises;
v) Teach theory and skills of crop and animal production in appropriate agricultural institutions;
vi) Pursue advanced training in relevant areas of specialization in the agricultural sciences;
vii) Some graduates of this programme should be able to pursue further training in specialized areas of agricultural sciences.

Admission Requirements

Any applicant who meets the minimum entry requirements for admission may be admitted into this programme.

The requirements for admission are

  • O’level Result
  • Birth Certificate
  • Passport Photograph

REGISTRATION PROCESS

To register for any of the available courses take the following steps

  • Click on courses on the menu bar or apply now button to pick a course
  • After selecting the course, click apply now to add to cart
  • View the cart to fill the application form
  • Submit the form to go to the payment page
  • Complete the payment form and select method of payment and submit.
  • You will receive an email letting you know of your registration and your application status
  • You will be contacted by one of our admission team member to guide you on the admission.
  • After making the payment of application fee admission letter will be sent to your email with fee structure.
  • You will need to make payment of at least 70% of the tuition and acceptance fee for you to be granted access to the course applied for.
  • After making the payment an email will be sent to your email with access link to your registered course.
  • You study online and can come to school every semester for exams.

FEE STRUCTURE

100 level  Fee Structure

180,000 Naira Tuition fee

10,000 Naira Application fee

20,000 Naira Acceptance fee

20,000 Naira Examination Fee

20,000 Naira study kit (t-shirt, course guide, workbook, pen, digital material)

Total 250,000 naira

 

200 level Transfer Fee structure

180,000 Naira tuition fee

10,000 Naira application fee

20,000 Naira acceptance fee

30,000 Naira transfer fee

20,000 Naira Examination Fee

20,000 Naira study kit (t-shirt, course guide, workbook, pen, digital material)

Total 280,000 Naira

 

Transfer final year 300 level Fee structure

180,000 Naira tuition fee

10,000 Naira application fee

20,000 Naira acceptance fee

20,000 Naira Examination Fee

30,000 Naira transfer fee

20,000 Naira Project supervision fee

60,000 Naira Certificate fee

20,000 Naira convocation fee

20,000 Naira study kit (t-shirt, course guide, workbook, pen, digital material)

Total 380,000 Naira

CURRICULUM

Section 1: Agribusiness Management

Introduction

It is exciting and diverse. It is changing quickly. It relies on the weather, uses an incredible array of technology, is tied in every way to our natural resources, and embraces the world. If you eat, you are involved in it as a consumer of its fi nal products. If you farm, you are involved in it as a producer of the raw materials that ultimately make their way to the end consumer. It is the extremely effi cient, very complex, global, food and fi ber production and marketing system.

This system is vast and it is fascinating: the next time you walk through your local grocery store, think about the number and type of diverse activities involved in growing, harvesting, transporting, processing, and distributing food throughout the 50 states in the United States, and, more broadly, our world. The process by which a 260-pound hog moves from Carroll County, Indiana to a suburban superstore in Los Angeles (now in the form of a hot dog in a pre-packaged children’s meal) is very complex, yet it occurs every day in the food production and marketing system.

 

This food production and marketing system is made up of thousands of businesses, ranging from the small cow-calf producer in western Kentucky, to some of the largest corporations in the world. And, it is  management that drives and directs the fi rms, farms, and food companies that come together in the food production and marketing system. A retail supermarket, a major corn processor, the local farm supply store, and a family farmer: each have a person or a group of people responsible for making sure that things get done. These are the  managers . Their titles range from chief executive offi cer to president to foreman to son or daughter or spouse. However, wherever they are found within an organization, managers are responsible for assuring successful completion of the functions, tasks, and activities that will determine an organization’s success.

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Introduction

Success or failure? Stellar performer or also-ran? For an agribusiness fi rm, success or failure is sometimes driven by the broader marketplace — a boom in export demand, a rapid price hike for fuel. Other times winning and losing comes down to chance— a  lucky break in the market, a competitor’s mistake. The broader marketplace and chance are clearly beyond the agribusiness fi rm’s direct control. Although these external factors are certainly important, the agribusiness fi rm also has infl uence on whether performance is stellar or mediocre. Decisions made by the fi rm’s managers— t he allocation of investment funds, the people hired, the products introduced, the plants constructed, the deals entered, and many more — all determine whether the fi rm will be able to capitalize on a favorable market or how well prepared the fi rm is for challenges.

While any fi rm will take a favorable trend or a lucky break, relying on factors outside the fi rm to determine performance simply leaves too much to chance. So, we will assert that fi rm performance hinges in large part on how effectively a manager uses the organization’s resources. Managers are hired to utilize fi rm resources in the best possible manner to achieve the performance objectives of the fi rm’s owners. They use resources to capitalize on market trends and to manage downside risk. Managers deploy resources to take advantage of fortunate circumstances or to minimize the fallout from unlucky ones. Managers drive performance in agribusiness fi rms.

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Introduction

In the fi rst two chapters, we outlined the importance of the agribusiness sector and discussed what it means to be a manager. It is also important to understand that agribusiness fi rms operate within a broader economic environment. To be effective decision-makers, agribusiness managers must understand the economics of the world in which they operate. Economic principles are useful to predict business trends and serve as the basis for many management decisions. The study of economics includes two different areas: macroeconomics and microeconomics.

Macroeconomics  focuses on the “big picture” view of the economic system. If you have taken a course in macroeconomics, you have studied topics like national income, gross domestic product, infl ation, unemployment, and interest rates. The Federal Reserve System, or “the Fed,” can affect the economy by changing monetary policy, which focuses on interest rates and the supply of money to the economy. Likewise, Congress can impact the economic system through fi scal policy, which includes government spending and taxing programs.

[more…]

Section 2: Crop Pests and their Management
Integrated Crop and Pest Management

1.1 Introduction

The purpose of this publication is to help growers make informed choices best adapted to the needs of their individual orchard. The best way to use this guide is to become familiar with it as a whole before using it to answer specific questions during the busy growing season.

 

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the guiding philosophy behind this publication. It is a multifaceted approach to maintain pest damage below economically damaging levels.

The word “Integrated” refers to the fact that individual management decisions are not isolated, but as much as possible take into account all aspects of the existing and potential pest situation in relation to the overall farm operation. Integration also applies to combining multiple tactics in a way that reinforces their efficacy. The word “Pest” refers to insects, mites, weeds, pathogens that cause disease, and vertebrates such as deer and voles.

Instead of focusing on how to eradicate pests, IPM considers pest biology and all feasible preventive and curative options, and brings them together into an overall management plan. This approach attempts to minimize problems of pollution and pest resistance while maximizing economic and environmental sustainability for the orchard.

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Organic Tree Fruit Production in New England

2.1 Introduction

There is more interest in organic tree fruit production than the actual number of certified orchards reflect and some growers are taking a new look at organic production, particularly organic apple production, given some recent research advances that address long-standing obstacles.

In the past, very few growers in the Northeast have attempted to produce apples and other tree fruits organically in part because of the practical difficulties involved in managing pests in this region with organically-approved pesticides. Wet weather in the spring and summer coupled with the disease-susceptible apple cultivars present significant challenges in disease management, particularly apple scab. In addition, a large number of both native and introduced arthropod pest species attack apples and other tree fruits grown in commercial orchards.

Management of pest complexes is particularly challenging in New England, because unlike more arid production regions in the country, fruit orchards in New England are commonly in close proximity to semi-wooded areas with an abundance of naturalized and wild host species that can harbor populations of certain tree fruit pests. However, during the last 10-15 years studies have been conducted to develop management tactics that address key pests that can be incorporated into an organic program. For example, recent studies have shown that the predaceous mite, Typhlodromus pyri, which is native to apple production regions in western New York and New England, can successfully manage populations of the key mite pest, European red mite, in commercial apple orchards if present in sufficient numbers so that no applications of miticides are required. Also, the trend of planting apple cultivars less susceptible to disease than ‘McIntosh’ may make organic production more feasible.  In addition, recent research in New York state and elsewhere has shown that pheromones can be deployed in orchards to disrupt mating of key lepidopteran species such as oriental fruit moth, and borer species, and substantially reduce damage from these pests. In addition, traditional management methods such as selective fruit thinning, pruning, sanitation (frequent removal of pest–infested, dropped fruit), removal of wild hosts near commercial plantings, and exclusion of pests, have been shown to reduce populations of some types of pests. Experience in Vermont has shown that non-managed Malus species can present significant inoculum for development of apple scab, fruit rot, and European apple sawfly outbreaks in adjacent organically managed apple blocks.   Ideally, organic fruit production is the synthesis of an entire suite of practices intended to take advantage of natural ecosystem interactions and minimize chemical intervention. In apples, such a system should start with the selection of disease-resistant cultivars to circumvent the need for the majority of normal disease sprays.

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Pesticide Information 

3.1 Pesticide Classification and  Certification

Putting it simply, a pesticide is a substance used to control pests. Federal law, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, or FIFRA, created two classifications of pesticides – general-use and restricted-use. Generaluse pesticides may be purchased and used by anyone, but only a certified applicator may purchase a restricteduse pesticide. Restricted-use pesticides must be used by a certified applicator or someone under their supervision.

The same federal law that classified pesticides divided applicators into two groups: private and commercial. Private Applicators use or supervise the use of pesticides to produce agricultural commodities or forest crops on land owned or operated by the private applicator or their employer. A farmer must be certified as a private applicator in order to purchase and use restricted-use pesticides on agricultural commodities. (No certification is needed if a farmer does not use restricted use pesticides.)

A Commercial Applicator uses or supervises the use of pesticides for any purpose or on any property not covered by the private applicator classification.

Certification training, exams, and recertification courses are continually given in each state in New England. Please consult your Cooperative Extension or the state pesticide regulating agency if you have questions concerning certification.

Please refer to the state pesticide regulating agency, in the state that you are spraying in, for specific rules and regulations in that state.

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Section 3: AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY
Microbiology often has been defined as the study of organisms and agents too small to be seen clearly by
the unaided eye—that is, the study of microorganisms. Because objects less than about one millimeter in
diameter cannot be seen clearly and must be examined with a microscope, microbiology is concerned
primarily with organisms and agents this small and smaller.

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Introduction
Bacteria are mostly unicellular organisms that lack chlorophyll and are among the smallest
living things on earth—only viruses are smaller. Multiplying rapidly under favorable
conditions, bacteria can aggregate into colonies of millions or even billions of organisms
within a space as small as a drop of water. The Dutch merchant and amateur scientist Anton
van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe bacteria and other microorganisms. Using singlelens microscopes of his own design, he described bacteria and other microorganisms (calling
them “animacules”) in a series of letters to the Royal Society of London between 1674 and
1723.

[more…]

The control of microbial growth is necessary in many practical situations, and significant
advances in agriculture, medicine, and food science have been made through study of this
area of microbiology. The microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature. In order to study the
nature and characteristics of a particular microbe, it is essential to isolate it from other
contaminating microorganisms. This can be achieved by maintaining a completely sterile
environment in which the microbe of interest is selectively grown. It is necessary that not only
the place you are working with microorganisms should be free from contamination (other
living organisms) but, the media and the materials you are using to handle and grow specific
microorganisms should be free from other microbial contaminants. For this purpose
‗sterilization‘ of the place of work materials and media have to be done.

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Section 4: Field Crops-I (Kharif)
INTRODUCTION
30M Lecture
INTRODUCTION
Rainfall in July, August, September and October was 0.87, 2.55, 2.03, 3.00 and 2.11 in. below
normal, respectively; rainfall in June was 2.94 in. above normal. Rainfall during the period
totaled 20.04 in., which was 7.62 in. below normal. Average minimum air temperatures were
3°F above normal in October, 1°F above normal in July, normal (±1°F) in May, June and July, 2°F
below normal in August and 5°F below normal in September. Average maximum air
temperatures were 2 °F above normal in June, July and October, and normal (±1°F) in May,
August and September, according to records from NOAA station #44-4044-01 at the Tidewater
AREC in Suffolk. Normal represented the mean for the past 80 years of records.

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WHEAT SEED TREATMENT FUNGICIDE TEST (WHEATSEED113, Tidewater AREC,
Field 61B)
A. PURPOSE: To compare seed treatment fungicides for disease control and impact on yield
B. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
1. Four, randomized complete blocks with 10-ft alleys between blocks
2. Plots were 7 rows, 15-ft long with 7-in. row spacing
3. Data collected from all seven rows in each plot
C. APPLICATION OF TREATMENTS: Seed treatment applied by personnel with Chemtura Corporation.
D. SEED TREATMENT AND RATE (ML/100 KG SEED):
1. Untreated seed
2. Rancona CTS 60 ml
3. Dividend Extreme 130 ml + Cruiser 5FS 53 ml
4. Rancona Crest WR 325 ml
5. Rancona CTS 60 ml + Attendant 480FS 104 ml
6. Foothold 325 ml + Attendant 480FS 104 ml
7. Rancona CTS 60 ml + Attendant 480FS 104 + Consensus 35 ml
8. Foothold 325 ml

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